Flight Engineer or Second Officer
|Flight Engineer or Second Officer Career
In Flight- Pilot Flight Engineer or Second Officer
The Flight Engineer is primarily concerned with the operation and monitoring of all aircraft systems, and is required to diagnose and where possible rectify or eliminate any faults that may arise. On most multi-engine airplanes, the Flight Engineer (FE) sets and adjusts engine power during take off, climb, cruise, go-arounds, or at any time the pilot flying (PF) requests a specific power setting to be set during the approach phase.
The FE sets and monitors the following major systems: fuel, pressurization and air conditioning, hydraulic, electrics, ice and rain protection, oxygen, fire and overheat protection, and powered flying controls. FEs are also responsible for preflight and postflight aircraft inspections, and ensuring that the weight and balance of the aircraft is correctly calculated to ensure the centre of gravity is within limits. On airplanes where the FE's station is located on the same flight deck just aft of the two pilots (all western three-man deck airplanes), they also monitor aircraft flight path, speed, and altitude. A significant portion of their time is cross checking pilot selections. The flight engineer is essentially the systems expert of the airplane with an extensive mechanical and technical knowledge of aircraft systems and aircraft performance.
While the various kinds of piloting jobs involve a variety of special circumstances, there are a number of conditions that are common to all pilots. All pilots flying for hire have progressed through a flight training program and have earned a commercial pilot's license or an airline transport rating. Most likely they will also have one or more advanced ratings such as instrument, multi-engine or aircraft type ratings depending upon the requirements of their particular flying jobs.
The position of flight engineer, or second officer, exists only on some of the large jet planes. Smaller airliners-as well as the newest large aircraft-have only a two-person flight crew, consisting of the first officer and captain. Functions of the flight engineer include inspecting the aircraft and overseeing fueling operations before flight. During the flight, the flight engineer monitors the performance of the engines and cabin pressurization, air conditioning, and other systems. Some flight engineers are not pilots and remain in their position for their entire careers, while others become flight engineers strictly as a stepping stone to a "front row seat" as airline pilot.
A pilot's "office" is the cockpit which contains all controls, instruments, and electronic communication and navigation equipment necessary to operate the aircraft. Some noise and vibration are noticeable, particularly in propeller aircraft.
They have a concern for safety including the safe condition or airworthiness of the plane; weather factors affecting the safety of the flight; flight regulations; air traffic control procedures, and air navigational aids designed to provide maximum safety in the air.
Pilots also have a dual responsibility. They must not only satisfy their employer, who might be an air taxi or an airline operator, but they must also demonstrate to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) that their flying skills, knowledge and state of health are at all times acceptable for the particular flying jobs they perform.
They must undergo frequent physical examinations and meet certain medical standards which vary according to the license which the pilot holds. A Class I Medical Certificate requires the highest standards for vision, hearing, equilibrium, and general physical condition. The pilot must have an exceptionally good health history with no evidence of organic and nervous diseases or mental disorders. A Class II Medical Certificate is less rigid, but still requires a high degree of physical health and an excellent medical history. A Class III Medical Certificate has the least stringent physical requirements. All three classes of medical certificates allow the pilot to wear glasses provided the correction is within the prescribed limits of vision. Drug addiction and/or chronic alcoholism disqualify any applicant.
The greater the number of flying hours and the more complex the flying skills, the more varied are the opportunities for advancement as a pilot. There are many chances to transfer from one kind of pilot job to another as flying hours are accumulated and additional skills are mastered. Frequently pilots double as flight instructors and air taxi pilots, or they may also operate an aircraft repair station with flight instruction and air taxi operations as sidelines. Many good aviation and airline flight crew jobs qualify pilots for jobs with governmental agencies, such as the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).
Typical Requirements and/or Experience
Considerable training is necessary for any type of pilot job, and most airline pilots have to "pay their dues" by first gaining a good deal of experience either in the military or in other types of civilian piloting.
All pilots who are paid to transport passengers or cargo must have a commercial pilot’s license with an instrument rating issued by the FAA.
Married and unmarried men and women, with or without children are eligible. Persons who are widowed or divorced, also are eligible.
It is the policy of most aviation companies to provide equal employment opportunity to all individuals regardless of their race, creed, color, religion, sex, age, national origin, disability, military and veteran status, sexual orientation, marital status, or any other characteristic protected by state or federal law. Most aviation companies are strongly committed to this policy, and believe in the concept and spirit of the United States law.
Most aviation companies are committed to assuring that:
All recruiting, hiring, training, promotion, compensation, and other employment related programs are provided fairly to all persons on an equal opportunity basis without regard to race, creed, color, religion, sex, age, national origin, disability, military and veteran status, sexual orientation, marital status or any other characteristic protected by law;
Employment decisions are based on the principles of equal opportunity and affirmative action;
All personnel actions such as compensation, benefits, transfers, training, and participation in social and recreational programs are administered without regard to race, creed, color, sex, age, national origin, disability, military and veteran status, sexual orientation, marital status or any other characteristic protected by law, and;
Employees and applicants will not be subjected to harassment, intimidation, threats, coercion or discrimination because they have exercised any right protected by law.
Most aviation companies believe in and practice equal opportunity and affirmative action. All employees are responsible for supporting the concept of equal opportunity and affirmative action and assisting the company in meeting its objectives.
Most aviation companies maintain Affirmative Action Plans for minorities, women, disabled persons and veterans.
EEOC has jurisdiction of the prohibitions against employment discrimination codified in Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Equal Pay Act of 1963, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967, Sections 501 and 505 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Titles I and V of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 and the Civil Rights Act of 1991. These laws prohibit discrimination based on race, color, sex, religion, national origin, age and disability.
The Office of Special Counsel (OSC) and the Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) enforce the prohibitions against federal employment discrimination codified in the CSRA. The OSC will defer those bases of discrimination under EEOC's jurisdiction to the respective federal agency and its EEO process. The CSRA also prohibits employment discrimination in the federal government based on marital status, political affiliation and conduct which does not adversely affect the performance of the employee, none of which are within EEOC's jurisdiction. Moreover, the law defines ten other prohibited personnel practices in the federal government, all of which fall under the jurisdiction of the OSC and the MSPB. See Prohibited Personnel Practices at http://www.osc.gov/ppp.htm.
Additional information may also be found on the the EEOC web site located at http://www.eeoc.gov/
Wages and Benefits
The pay can be very good; top salary at some of the higher paying major airlines is around $200,000 a year, for about 80 to 85 hours of flying per month. And benefits for pilots, as well as many other airline employees, include travel passes. But remember, the top salary level is reached only after many years of service and only at a few of the major airlines.
Salaries and benefits can vary. For an updated look at salaries in the aviation industry, view the Avjobs.com Salary Report.
Where the jobs are and who hires
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Opportunities for Advancement
Advancement for all pilots usually is limited to other flying jobs. Flight engineers can advance to first officer positions. In the airlines, advancement usually depends on seniority provisions of union contracts. After 1 to 5 years, flight engineers advance according to seniority to first officer and, after 5 to 15 years, to captain.
Outlook for the Future
After September 11, 2001, air travel was severely depressed. A number of the major airlines were forced to reduce schedules, layoff employees, and even declare bankruptcy. At the same time, hiring continued at regional and low-fare airlines. It is expected that job opportunities will continue to be better with the regional airlines and low-fare carriers, which are growing faster than the more well-known major airlines. Opportunities with air cargo carriers also are expected to be good due to increasing security requirements for shipping freight on passenger airlines and growth in e-business.
The passenger airline industry is undergoing many changes, with some airlines posting increases in passenger traffic and adding routes while others are cutting back. Overall, the employment of aircraft pilots is projected to increase about as fast as average for all occupations through 2012. In the long run, demand for air travel is expected to track increases in the population and growth of the economy. In the short run, however, employment of pilots is generally sensitive to cyclical swings in the economy. During recessions, when a decline in the demand for air travel forces airlines to curtail the number of flights, airlines may temporarily furlough some pilots.
The number of flight engineers is projected to decline through 2012 as new planes needing only two pilots replace older planes that required flight engineers. Pilots also will experience some productivity improvements as airlines switch to larger planes and adopt the low-fare carrier model that emphasizes faster turnaround times for flights, keeping more pilots in the air rather than waiting on the ground.
To locate educational facilities with programs related to this position, search Avjobs Aviation School Directory. The Avjobs Aviation School Directory makes researching and finding an aviation college, university, flight school or professional training facility simple.
Preparing a Professional Pilot Resume
It is true many major carriers do not request a resume, and during the interview process, the interviewer will refer primarily to you company application. However, a concise, error-free resume will add a professional, organized touch to your "paperwork" presentation. A resume also comes in handy if there is special information you want the interviewer to know but can find no appropriate place on the company application to list these important facts. Writing your own resume and completing company applications can be relatively "pain free" if you spend the time to collect all the information you need BEFORE beginning the writing process. This information has been provided to help you in composing both your resume and specific company applications. Sections Include: Points To Remember, Resume & Application Information/Resume Writing Examples, Resume Layout Example.
Points to remember
It is best if your resume is one page
Have your resume professionally printed
Use white or light ivory colored paper, 25lb., 100% cotton weight. Use the same paper for your resume, cover letter and reference sheet
Do not put the word "resume" on your resume.
Do not include references on your resume. References should be on a separate sheet
Do not leave employment gaps of more than 2 months
Basically list only your "adult work history." If you worked during high school or college, list your descriptions under EDUCATION and place it after the listing of your degrees and/or course work title
B.S. in Aviation Management from Metropolitan State College. To assist with college and flight training expenses worked all four years as a fueler/airplane scheduler/ground instructor for local FBO
You may title your separate sections whatever you please (i.e., Work History could be Experience, Employment History, etc.). No matter what titles you choose every resume should include:
Flight Time/Certifications/Ratings, Employment History, Education
Individualized sections may include:
Specialized Training, Community Involvement, Interests, Honors/Awards
You may list your PERSONAL INFORMATION (birthdate, height/weight, etc.) but it is not necessary
It is important that your application is presented as professionally as possible. Remember, this information is YOU on paper
Unless it specifically states to "PRINT" or unless you have incredibly fine penmanship it is much easier to read if it is typed
Leave no blank spaces. If a question is not applicable to you write "N/A"
As stated earlier, the company application will be the primary information source for the interviewer. For this reason it is important to use all available space on the application to point out any special traits or experiences you may possess. Many applications ask questions such as "Is there any other information you would like us to take into consideration?" Use this space to sell yourself! For example: if there has been no place on the application to list you community involvement, or no opportunity to discuss your college scholarships or military flying awards this type of question would be the place to briefly list these facts
Resume and application information collecting & resume writing examples
Compile this information before filling out any applications or writing your resume. Check off each item after completion.
|Flight time||____ List specific flight time/certifications/ratings|
____ List types of aircraft flown
|Work history||____ List ALL your work history beginning with the most recent. Include military service, company names, dates employed, job title, job duties (list in order of importance)|
____ List reasons for leaving (return to school, advancement, company furlough, etc.)
____ List any awards of achievements through you employment
____ List names, addresses and phone numbers of possible references
Your job description may need only be as simple as this:
ABC Airlines- January 1984 to December 1990
Los Angeles, California
First Officer: B-737-300
Or you may need, or want, to be a bit more specific:
XYZ Flight Center(FAR Part 141 Flight School) - June 1984 to July 1987
CFI-I: Conducted private, commercial, flight and instrument instruction
United States Air Force- January 1970 to December 1987
Los Angeles, California (final assignment)
Primary positions included Aircraft Commander, Instructor Pilot and scheduling Officer. Entered the service as a Second Lieutenant, retired as Lt. Colonel
Top Graduate of Squadron Officers School. 1986 USAF Flying Safety Award
|Education & specialized training||____ List all your formal education beginning with the most recent. Include Degree received and/or area of study. Name of school, city, state|
____ List any awards or achievements, outstanding grade point average (GPA), scholarships or information concerning how you funded your education. Include any offices help or sports played
____ List any specialized training you have taken on your own
B.A. in Aviation Management. Metropolitan State College, Denver, Colorado
Graduated with GPA of 3.5/4.0 scale. Funded entire college education and flight training through part-time employment and scholastic scholarships. Four years Ellis Scholarship Award. Two years Achievement Scholarship
(If you did not graduate) Studies in Aviation Management at Metropolitan State College - 2 1/2 years
Graduate of Mountain Flying Program and Advanced Aerobatics from ABC Aviation College, Denver, Colorado
|Community involvement||____ List any current or continuing volunteer experience. Volunteer title, name of volunteer organization, basic duties, awards or achievements received|
Committee Member for local Red Cross Emergency Housing. During family emergencies or natural disasters secure housing, food and clothing for those needing assistance. Volunteer of the Month - June 1988
|Interests, honors or awards||____ List any hobbies or interests. Be specific if you have unusually in-depth interests or interests which are applicable to flying. This section is for honors or awards which do not fit under the headings of EDUCATION, WORK HISTORY OR COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT|
Ranked #4 in the state in both singles and doubles tennis 1989 and 1990
Restore antique airplanes. Restore and sell an average of 2 airplanes per year
____ Although this information will NOT be on your resume, you will need specific information in order to complete company applications. Begin immediately to collect all the necessary paperwork
Now is the time to start collecting all your documentation
____ Update your logbooks. (No matter what your experience level major carriers want specific, clear descriptions of your flight time.)
____ Write away for your driving record, FAA records and educational transcripts
____ Your passport should be up-to-date
____ Gather all the originals of your licenses and make clear copies
____ Have your past employers and personal contacts write their letters of reference. Keep a file of all these letters
____ Make sure you are fully aware of any medical situation which could cause problems during your company physical. Have your cholesterol, blood pressure, weight, eyes and hearing checked
1122 Anyplace Avenue
Denver, Colorado 80000
Primary Number 303/555-1212, Messages Taken at 303/555-1313 or 719/555-1414
Objective: Flight Officer
|Total flight time||7,985|
|Pilot in Command:|
|Certifications||Airline Transport Pilot: Airplane Multi-Engine Land|
Commercial Privileges: Airplane Single Engine Land
Flight Instructor: Airplane Single Engine Land and Instrument
Flight Engineer Written Exam: FEB/FEJ
FAA Class 1 Medical
ABC Airways, Inc. - August 1987 to present
Boston, Massachusetts. FAR Part 121 scheduled air carrier
First Officer: CV-580
DEF Airlines, Inc. - August 1983 to June 1987 (periodic employment as needed)
Westerly, Rhode Island. FAR Part 135 scheduled commuter and charter
Captain: PA-32-300, PA-28-235
GHI Airlines, Inc.- April 1986 to October 1987
Los Angeles, California. FAR Part 135 scheduled commuter
First Officer: SA 226/227
JKL Flight, Inc. - July 1984 to March 1986
Manchester, New Hampshire. FAR Part 121/135 scheduled commuter
First Officer: SD3-60, DHC-6
MNO Aviation, Inc. - September 1981 to June 1984
Greeley, Colorado. FAR Part 141 flight school
CFI-I: Conducted commercial, flight instructor and instrument instruction
PQR Flight Center- February 1980 to September 1981
CFI-I: Conducted private, commercial and instrument instruction
Studies in Education at The University of New Hampshire - 2 1/2 years
Graduate of the Fixed Wing Professional Pilot Program. ABC Aviation College, Los Angeles, California
References: Available upon request.
Availability: Immediate, two weeks notice preferred.